Correlation between Disclosure Status and Stress in Men who Have Sex with Men with HIV

Edianto Edianto, Agung Waluyo, Sri Yona, Ina Martiana
| Abstract views: 484 | PDF views: 467


Men who have sex with men living with HIV (MSM-LWH) experience psychological and social issues, including depression, anxiety, fear of infecting others, frustration, and social isolation. They may also experience problems in their relationships due to a fear of social stigma, such as marital issues, family conflicts, a lack of family support, economic difficulties, and social rejection by the family. This research aimed to assess the relationship between HIV status disclosure and stress in MSM-LWH in Medan, Indonesia. Here, a cross-sectional design and the convenience sampling technique were used. A total of 176 respondents who were MSM, HIV positive, and residents of Medan City were included in this work. Data were collected by means of HIV Status Disclosure questionnaires and a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Overall, 70.9% respondents reported disclosing their status to others and approximately half revealed experiencing stress. Moreover, HIV status disclosure was significantly associated with stress (p= 0.025). This study reveals that HIV status disclosure may result in negative effects on MSMLWH, represent a barrier to medical treatment, and increase internal stress.




Hubungan antara Status Disclosure dengan Stres pada Lelaki yang Berhubungan Seks dengan Lelaki dengan HIV. Lelaki yang berhubungan Seks dengan lelaki (LSL) yang hidup dengan HIV mengalami masalah psikologis dan sosial termasuk depresi, kecemasan, ketakutan menulari orang lain, frustasi dan isolasi sosial. Selain itu juga mengalami masalah dalam hubungan sosial karena takut akan stigma, konflik dalam keluarga, kurangnya dukungan keluarga, kesulitan ekonomi dan penolakan oleh keluarga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status disclosure HIV dengan stress pada LSL yang hidup dengan HIV di Medan, Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah cross-sectional dengan menggunakan teknik convenience sampling. Sebanyak 176 responden LSL dengan HIV positif dan tinggal di wilayah kota Medan. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan HIV Status Disclosure Questionare dan Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa sebanyak 70,9% responden memiliki status disclosure HIV rendah, sementara itu sebanyak 55,1% resonden mengalami stress yang tinggi. Status disclosure HIV secara ber-makna dikaitkan dengan stress (p= 0,025). Penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa status disclosure HIV dapat mem-berikan efek negatif pada LSL yang hidup dengan HIV dan menjadi penghalang untuk perawatan medis dan mening-katkan stress internal.

Kata Kunci: HIV, lelaki yeng berhubungan seks dengan lelaki, status disclosure, stres


HIV; men who have sex with men; status disclosure; stress

Full Text:



Almeida, J., Johnson, R.M., Corliss, H.L., Molnar, B.E., & Azrael, D. (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: The influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38 (7), 1001–1014. doi: 10.10 07/s10964-009-9397-9.

Berman, A.J., Snyder, S., Kozier, B., & Erb, G. (2016). Kozier & Erb's fundamentals of nursing: Concepts, process, and practice (10th Ed.). USA: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Beyrer, C., Baral, S.D., Van Griensven, F., Goodreau, S.M., Chariyalertsak, S., Wirtz, A.L., & Brookmeyer, R. (2012). Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The Lancet, 380 (9839), 367–377. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)6082 1-6.

Bidaki, R., Rajabi, Z., Rezaeian, M., Ghannad, M.S., Shahrbabaki, M.H.S. (2017). Social acceptance for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Kerman and Rafsanjan, Iran. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and, 6 (1), 4–7. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.30564.

Black, J.M., & Hawks, J.H. (2009). Medical-surgical nursing: Clinical management for positive outcomes (8th Ed.). St. Louis: Saunders, Elsevier.

Daskalopoulou, M., Lampe, F.C., Sherr, L., Phillips, A.N., Johnson, M.A., Gilson, R., … Study, A. (2016). Non-disclosure of HIV status and associations with psychological factors, ART Non-adherence, and viral load non-suppression among people living with HIV in the UK. AIDS and Behavior, 21 (1), 184–195. doi:10.1007/s10461-016-1541-4.

Dejman, M., Ardakani, H.M., Malekafzali, B., Moradi, G., Gouya, M.M., Shushtari, Z.J., ... & Mohraz, M. (2015). Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 6, 126. doi: 10.4103/2008-7802.172540.

Feng, M.C., Feng, J.Y., Yu, C.T., Chen, L.H., Yang, P.H., Shih, C.C., & Lu, P.L. (2015). Stress, needs, and quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in Taiwan. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 31 (9), 485–492.

Feng, Y., Wu, Z., & Detels, R. (2010). Evolution of men who have sex with men community and experienced stigma among men who have sex with men in Chengdu, China. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 53, S98–S103. doi: 10.1097/qai.0b013e3181c7df71.

Field of PMK, Medan City Health Office. (2016). Profil kesehatan Kota Medan tahun 2016 (pp. 31–35). Medan: Field of PMK, Medan City Health Office.

Hinkle, J.L., & Cheever, K.H. (2018). Brunner and Suddarth's textbook of medical-surgical nursing (14th Ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

Ignatavicus, D., & Bayne, M.V. (2010). Medical surgical nursing: A Nursing process approach (6th Ed.). Philadelphia: WB Sounder Company.

Jeffries, W.L., Okeke, J.O., Gelaude, D.J., Torrone, E.A., Gasiorowicz, M., Oster, A.M., … Bertolli, J. (2014). An exploration of religion and spirituality among young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men in the USA. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 16 (9), 1070–1083.

Kelleher, C. (2009). Minority stress and health: Implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) young people. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22 (4), 373–379.

Kuyper, L., & Fokkema, T. (2011). Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58 (2), 222–233.

Lin, X., Chi, P., Zhang, L., Zhang, Y., & Fang, X. (2015). Disclosure of HIV serostatus and sexual orientation among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in China. Community Mental Health Journal, 52 (4), 457–465. doi: 10.1007/s10597- 015-9879-z.

Meyer, I. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36 (1), 38–56.

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2017a). Data dan informasi profil kesehatan Indonesia 2016. Jakarta: Health Data and Information Center The Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2017b). Statistik Kasus HIV/AIDS di Indonesia. Jakarta: Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from

Mitrani, V.B., De Santis, J.P., McCabe, B.E., Deleon, D.A., Gattamorta, K.A., & Leblanc, N.M. (2017). The impact of parental reaction to sexual orientation on depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Hispanic men who have sex with men. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 31 (4), 352–8.

Pereira, H., Caldeira, D., & Monteiro, S. (2017). Perceptions of HIV-Related stigma in Portugal among MSM with HIV infection and an undetectable viral load. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 29 (3), 439–453. doi: 10.1016/j.jana.2017.12.002.

Rostosky, S., & Riggle, E.D.B. (2017). Same-sex relationships and minority stress. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 29–38.

Savin-Williams, R.C. (1989). Coming out to parents and self-esteem among gay and lesbian youths. Journal of Homosexuality, 8 (1–2), 1–35. doi: 10.1300/J082v18n01_01.

UNAIDS. (2017). UNAIDS data 2017. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 1–248. doi: 978-92-9173-945-5. Retrieved from

Wei, C., Lim, S.H., Guadamuz, T.E., & Koe, S. (2011). HIV disclosure and sexual transmission behaviors among an internet sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Asia: Implications for prevention with positives. AIDS and Behavior, 16 (7), 1970–1978. doi: 10.1007/s10461-011-0105-x.

Zhao, Y., Ma, Y., Chen, R., Li, F., Qin, X., & Hu, Z. (2016). Non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents associated with sexual risk behaviors among gay and bisexual MSM in China. AIDS and Behavior, 20 (1), 193–203.


  • There are currently no refbacks.