Program Perencanaan Pulang Dapat Meningkatkan Pengetahuan dan Keterampilan Ibu yang Melahirkan Bayi Prematur Merawat Bayinya

Erna Julianti, Yeni Rustina, Efendi Defi
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Abstract

Bayi yang lahir prematur berisiko mengalami permasalahan kesehatan, sehingga membutuhkan perawatan yang intens dari sejak di rumah sakit sampai ketika bayi sudah boleh dipulangkan ke rumah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh edukasi dalam perencanaan pulang terhadap pengetahuan dan keterampilan ibu merawat bayi prematur. Penelitian ini merupakan studi quasi experiment dengan rancangan pre and post-test without control design. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 35 ibu yang melahirkan bayi prematur dan bayinya di rawat di ruang Perinatologi sebuah rumah sakit di Jakarta. Sampel diambil secara consecutive sampling. Intervensi penelitian adalah pemberian edukasi menggunakan media pembelajaran booklet dan audiovisual yang berisi tentang ASI, teknik menyusui, perawatan metode kanguru, cara pencegahan infeksi, dan tanda bahaya pada bayi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa setelah diberikan edukasi selama perencanaan pulang, pengetahuan ibu merawat bayi prematur rata-rata mengalami kenaikan skor sebesar 29,52, aspek keterampilan menyusui skornya naik sebesar 33,29 dan keterampilan perawatan metode kanguru terdapat kenaikan skor sebesar 30,25. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaaan yang signifikan antara rata-rata skor pengetahuan ibu merawat bayi prematur, skor keterampilan menyusui, dan skor keterampilan perawatan metode kanguru (PMK) sebelum dan setelah diberikan edukasi selama perencanaan pulang (p> 0,001). Pelaksanaan program edukasi selama perencanaan pulang yang dilakukan selama tiga hari dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan ibu merawat bayi prematur. Edukasi dalam perencanaan pulang sebaiknya rutin diterapkan di rumah sakit sebagai intervensi keperawatan mandiri agar makin meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan keperawatan.

 

Kata Kunci: perawatan bayi prematur perencanaan pulang, perawatan metode kanguru (PMK)

 

Abstract

 

Discharge Planning Improving Knowledge and Skill Mother Who Birth Premature to Take Care Baby. Premature babies have a greater risk for health problems. Therefore, they need an intensive care since they are in the hospital until they go home. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of education program for the knowledge and skills of the mothers on caring for their premature babies during discharge planning. This research was a quasi-experimental study with pre and post-test design without control groups. The sample of this research was 35 mothers who gave birth to premature babies and their babies receive care at a perinatology room in a hospital in Jakarta. The sample was taken using consecutive sampling. The intervention in this research was giving an education to the mothers of premature babies using booklet and audiovisual as the learning media containing information about breast milk, breastfeeding technique, kangaroo mother care, the method for infection prevention, and warning signs in babies. The research finding showed that after giving the education during the discharge planning, the knowledge of the mothers on caring for their babies, on average, had an increased score of 29.52, the score for the skills aspect increased by 33.29, and the score for kangaroo care mother skills increased by 30.25. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the average score of the knowledge of the mothers on caring for premature babies, the score of breastfeeding skills, and the score for kangaroo care mother skills before and after the education program during the discharge planning (p> 0.001). The implementation of the education program during discharge planning that was done for three days could increase the knowledge and skills of the mothers on caring for their premature babies. The education during discharge planning should be conducted regularly at the hospital as an independent nursing intervention to improve the quality of nursing services.

Keywords

premature baby care; discharge planning; kangaroo mother care

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