Prediktor Kegagalan Menyusui Eksklusif: Studi di Puskesmas Buaran Kabupaten Pekalongan Jawa Tengah Indonesia

Isyti'aroh Isyti'aroh, Siti Rofiqoh, Nurul Aktifah
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Abstract

Kegagalan menyusui eksklusif di masih menjadi fenomena di masyarakat. Di Kabupaten Pekalongan tahun 2015 cakupan ASI eksklusif sebesar 30,3%. Angka tersebut mengindikasikan sebagian besar ibu gagal memberikan ASI eksklusif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor prediktif yang berhubungan dengan kegagalan menyusui eksklusif. Metoda penelitian menggunakan metoda deskriptif dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Pengambilan sampel dengan cara cluster random sampling. Dari 10 kelurahan yang mewakili seluruh wilayah kerja puskesmas Buaran Pekalongan diambil sampel sebanyak 4 kelurahan.  Sampel penelitian adalah ibu yang mempunyai anak usia diatas 6 bulan – 12 bulan sejumlah  151 responden. Instrumen penelitian menggunakan kuesioner dari penelitian Isyti’aroh, Setyowati dan Afifah (2013) dan sudah dilakukan uji validitas dan reliabilitas dengan hasil valid dan reliabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 106 gagal menyusui eksklusif dan 45 berhasil menyusui eksklusif. Karakteristik responden 108 multiparitas,  riwayat ANC teratur 150, 131 persalinannya pervagina, 141 sudah terpapar, 147 menerima peran sebagai ibu, 150 mendapatkan dukungan keluarga, 146 tidak mempunyai  asisten rumah tangga sebesar, 107 tidak bekerja,   96 pengetahuan rendah, 110 mempercayai mitos negatif tentang ASI. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan kegagalan menyusui eksklusif adalah pengetahuan yang rendah (p value 0,001; 95% CI 0,061-0,288) dan mitos yang tidak benar tentang ASI dan menyusui (p value 0,0001;  95% CI 0,124-0,569). Faktor yang paling berhubungan adalah pengetahuan. Saran bagi perawat agar melakukan edukasi secara intensif tentang ASI dan menyusui eksklusif pada saat ibu melakukan ante natal care.

 

Kata kunci: menyusui eksklusif, mitos, pengetahuan tentang menyusui

 

Abstract

 

Predictors for Exclusive Breastfeeding Failure: Study at Buaran Community Health Center Pekalongan Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The failure of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is still a phenomenon in the community. In 2015 Pekalongan Regency had exclusive breastfeeding coverage of 30.3%. It indicates that most mothers failed to give exclusive breastfeeding. This study aimed to determine the factors that related to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) failure. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 151 mother in the Buaran Health Centre Pekalongan Regency, selected using cluster random sampling method.  The research instrument was questionnaires from the research of Isyti'aroh, Setyowati and Afifah 2013. The questionnaires have been validity and reliability test. The results showed there were 106 failed EBF and 45 success EBF, 108 multipara, 150 with regular ANC history, 131 with vaginal deliveries, 141 had already exposures EBF information, 147 accepted their role, 150 received support, and 146 hadn’t household assistants, 107 unemployed, 96 had low knowledge, and 110 trusted myth about breastfeeding. The factors that related to EBF failure were knowledge (p value 0.001, 95% CI 0.061- 0.288) and myth (p value 0.001, 95% CI 0.124-0.569). The most related factor is knowledge. Suggestions for nursing to conduct intensive education about exclusive breastfeeding when mother do antenatal care.

 

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, knowledge of breastfeeding, myth

Keywords

menyusui eksklusif; mitos; pengetahuan; exclusive breastfeeding; knowledge of breastfeeding; myth

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