INTERVENSI REHABILITASI JANTUNG FASE I PADA PASIEN YANG MENJALANI OPERASI BEDAH PINTAS KORONER (BPK): LITERATUR REVIEW

Indah Dwi Astuti, Muhammad Rizki Akbar, Aan Nuraeni
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Abstract

Pasien yang menjalani operasi Bedah Pintas Koroner (BPK) atau coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) memiliki risiko terjadinya komplikasi pasca operasi yang berakibat pada hari rawat yang lama bahkan kematian. Intervensi berupa rehabilitasi jantung fase I diperlukan untuk membantu mempercepat proses pemulihan pasca operasi serta mencegah terjadinya komplikasi pasca operasi BPK. Meskipun penelitian terkait rehabilitasi jantung sudah banyak dilakukan, namun perlu dilakukan telaah lebih lanjut dari artikel penelitian mengenai intervensi yang dapat dilakukan dalam program rehabilitasi jantung yang aman dan mudah dilakukan pada pasien pasca operasi BPK. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat intervensi yang aman dan efektif dilakukan dalam rehabilitasi jantung fase I pada pasien yang menjalani operasi BPK. Studi literatur ini dibuat dengan melakukan analisis terhadap atikel-artikel ilmiah minimal penelitian retrospektif yang dipublikasi tahun 2008 sampai 2018 dan berbahasa Inggris. Data didapat dari database meliputi Google Scholar, PubMed, DOAJ, dan Proquest dengan kata kunci cardiac rehabilitation phase I, coronary artery bypass grafting, early ambulation, early mobilization, education pre operative, dan physical exercise.  Hasil studi literatur ini didapatkan 13 artikel yang sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Hasil telaah ditemukan bahwa pelaksanaan rehabilitasi jantung fase I pada pasien yang menjalani operasi BPK dimulai dari fase praoperasi dan dilanjutkan pasca operasi sampai pasien akan pulang. Intervensi rehabilitasi jantung fase I, baik pre maupun pasca operasi, terdiri dari edukasi dan konseling, latihan/ aktivitas fisik, latihan bernapas, latihan batuk efektif, inspiratory muscle training, fisioterapi dada, dan respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics. Oleh karena itu, hasil telaah literatur ini dapat menjadi dasar dalam menentukan standar prosedur operasional terhadap pelaksanaan rehabilitasi jantung fase I untuk rumah sakit yang menyediakan pelayanan operasi BPK.

 

Kata Kunci: cardiac rehabilitation phase I, coronary artery bypass grafting, early ambulation, early mobilization.

 

Abstract

 

Cardiac rehabilitation phase I in patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. A patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting CABG surgery has a risk of post operative complication, which can cause prolonged length of stay and even mortality. The patient necessarily needs to do intervention cardiac rehabilitation phase I to help the recovery process after surgery and prevent post operative complications. The articles related to cardiac rehabilitation have been carried out. However, it is necessary to review research articles about the effective and safe intervention of cardiac rehabilitation phase I for patients undergoing CABG surgery. The aim of this study was to explore the effective and safe intervention of cardiac rehabilitation phase I. This literature review was conducted by analyzing articles including randomized control trial until retrospective design which published between 2008 to 2018 with English language articles. Data was searched through Google Scholar, PubMed, DOAJ, and Proquest. The keyword was early ambulation, coronary artery bypass grafting, preoperative education, physical exercise, early mobilization, and cardiac rehabilitation phase I or inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. The finding in this literature review was 13 articles corresponding with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The result of this study found that the intervention in cardiac rehabilitation phase I in patient who undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery was started from preoperative and continued postoperative phases until the patient will leave the hospital. Interventions in cardiac rehabilitation phase I consisted of education and counseling, physical exercise/ activity, breathing exercises, effective cough exercises, inspiratory muscle training, chest physiotherapy, and respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics. Therefore, the result of this literature review can be the basis to determine standard operational procedure for the implementation of the cardiac rehabilitation phase I for the hospitals that provide CABG surgery.

 

Keywords: cardiac rehabilitation phase I, coronary artery bypass grafting, early ambulation, early mobilization

Keywords

cardiac rehabilitation phase I; coronary artery bypass grafting; early ambulation; early mobilization

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References

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