Persepsi Pasien dengan HIV/AIDS dan Keluarganya Tentang HIV/AIDS dan Stigma Masyarakat Terhadap Pasien HIV/AIDS

Agung Waluyo, Elly Nurachmah, Rosakawati Rosakawati
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Abstract

Abstrak

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi persepsi pasien HIV/AIDS dan keluarganya tentang HIV/AIDS dan stigma masyarakat terhadap pasien HIV/AIDS. Pendekatan yang digunakan pada penelitian kualitatif ini adalah fenomenologi. Sejumlah 13 informan (7 pasien dan 6 anggota keluarga) berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Profil demografik informan klien HIV/AIDS meliputi pendidikan sekolah menengah atas sampai perguruan tinggi, berjenis kelamin pria usia 18–40 tahun. Informan keluarga umumnya adalah kakak kandung (berjenis kelamin pria dan wanita) dan orangtua (ibu) dari klien HIV/AIDS berusia 45–55 tahun. Hasil analisis didapatkan beberapa tema: (1) Pengetahuan pasien/keluarga tentang HIV/AIDS yang rendah (2) Pasien tidak terinformasi tentang penyakitnya (3) Kepercayaan yang salah tentang HIV/AIDS dan cara penularannya (4) Pasien HIV/AIDS bertanggung jawab atas dan pantas untuk terinfeksi HIV/AIDS (5) Perasaan takut dikucilkan/ upaya untuk merahasiakan tentang penyakitnya (6) Perasaan tersisih/ dikucilkan oleh keluarga dan kelompok tertentu (7) Intimidasi/ teror fisik (8) Putus asa dan (9) Harapan pasien HIV/AIDS. Hasil penelitian ini dapat bermanfaat untuk meminimalkan stigma dengan cara mengoptimalkan pengetahuan masyarakat sehingga deteksi dini pada orang yang berisiko dapat dilakukan. Hal ini memungkinkan terjadinya optimalisasi terapi ARV dan efektifitas asuhan keperawatan pada pasien HIV/AIDS dan juga peningkatan kualitas hidup pasien.

 

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify the patient’s and relative’s perception on HIV/AIDS & stigma amongst the people. The design of this qualitative research is phenomenology approach. Thirteen informants (7 patients and 6 relatives of the patients) participated the study. The demographic profile of the informants were male and female with age from 18 years old to 40 years old for the patient and 45-55 for relatives. The findings identified some themes which are: (1) Lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS on patient and relatives (2) The patients were not well informed on their condition (3) Misperception on HIV/AIDS and mode of spreading of HIV/AIDS (4) HIV/AIDS patients are responsibled and deserved for having infected HIV/ AIDS (5) The effort of the patient & their relatives to say nothing about their condition because they are afraid to be isolated from the community (6) The feeling of being isolated by the family member or a certain group of the people (7) Intimidation and physical Teror (8) The feeling of desperate and (9) Patient’s hopes. The result of these studies could be beneficial to minimize stigma by improving the knowledge of the people where it may optimize the early detection on the high risk people. It could also optimizes the treatment of ARV & the nursing care to the HIV/AIDS patient and their quality of life during AIDS stage.

Keywords

keluarga, pasien HIV/AIDS, persepsi, stigma

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