Penyimpangan Tumbuh Kembang Anak dengan Orang Tua Bekerja

Dewi Sri Handayani, Anisa Sulastri, Tri Mariha, Nani Nurhaeni


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7454/jki.v20i1.439


Abstract


Anak merupakan aset berharga suatu bangsa karena merupakan generasi penerus. Perhatian yang kurang akibat kesibukan orang tua yang bekerja menyebabkan anak berisiko mengalami penyimpangan tumbuh kembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi hubungan antara jenis pola asuh, status bekerja, dan waktu bekerja orang tua bekerja dengan penyimpangan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pada anak. Penelitian potong lintang ini melibatkan sampel 73 responden yang berada di wilayah Kecamatan Kramat Jati, Jakarta Timur. Sampel dipilih menggunakan stratified random sampling. Didapatkan 77% anak pertumbuhannya baik dan 56,2% perkembangannya sesuai. Sebanyak 23% anak ditemukan memiliki minimal satu hasil pengukuran indikator pertumbuhan yang tidak normal dan sebanyak 4,1% anak dicurigai kemungkinan ada penyimpangan perkembangan. Selain itu, hasil analisis data menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan yang signifikan antara pola asuh dengan pertumbuhan (p= 1,000, α= 0,05), pola asuh dan perkembangan (p= 1,000, α= 0,05), status orang tua bekerja dan pertumbuhan (p= 0,362, α= 0,05 ), status orang tua bekerja dan perkembangan (p= 0,901, α= 0,05), waktu orang tua bekerja dan pertumbuhan (p= 0,497, α= 0,05), waktu orang tua bekerja dan perkembangan (p= 1,000, α= 0,05). Orangtua yang bekerja bukanlah faktor penghambat dalam tumbuh kembang anak.

 

Abstract

 

Growth and Development Deviation in Children with Working Parents. Children is the nation precious asset. As the future generation, high quality children is needed to achieve bright future of the nation. Less attention to the growth and development supported factor due to the working parent causes growth and development deviation in children.The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between parenting style of working parent with growth and development deviation in children. The study cross sectional study involved in 73 respondents in Kramat Jati district, Jakarta Timur, using stratified random sampling. The results were 77% children had good growth and 56.2% children had appropriate development. 23% children had minimun one abnormal growth indicator and 4.1% children was suspected to had development deviation. Data analyzes showed that there was no significant relationship between parenting style and growth (p= 1.000, α= 0.05), parenting style and development (p= 1.000, α= 0.05), parent working status and growth (p= 0.497, α= 0.05), parent working status and development (p= 0.901, α= 0.05), time of working and growth (p= 0.497, α= 0.05), time of working and development (p= 1.000, α= 0.05). This study implies that working parent is not  burden factor for children to grow up and develop optimally.

 

Keywords: child aged 0-72 months, children growth & development, parenting style

Keywords


anak 0-72 bulan; perkembangan; pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak; pola asuh

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Agrina, Sahar J., & Haryati, T.S. (2012) Karakteristik orang tua dan lingkungan rumah memengaruhi perkembangan balita. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 15 (2), 83–88.

Badan Pusat Statistik RI. (2014). Statistik daerah provinsi DKI Jakarta. Jakarta: BPS RI. ISSN: 2087-6238.

Bowman, R.A., Scotti, J.R., & Morris, T.L. (2010). Sexual abuse prevention: A training program for developmental disabilities service providers. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19 (2), 119–127.

Dinkes Riau. (2014). Tahapan tumbuh kembang bayi dan balita. Diperoleh dari: http:// www.dinkesprovkepri.org/beranda/2-berita/ 151-tahapan-tumbuh-kembang-bayi-dan-balita.

Farrell, G. (2015). The relationship between parenting syle and the level of emotional intelligence in preschool-aged children. Disertasi. Philadelphia: Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Fox, L., Han, W.J., Ruhm, C., & Waldfogel, J. (2013). Time for children: Trends in the employment patterns of parents, 1967–2009. Demography, 50 (1), 25–49.

Han, W.J. (2008). Shift work and child behavioral outcomes. Work Employ Soc, 22 (1), 67–87. Doi: 10.1177/0950017007 087417.

Hastings, P.D., Mc Shane, K.E., & Parker, R. (2007). Ready to make nice: Parental socialization of young sons’ and daughters’ prosocial behaviors with peers. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168, 177–200. Doi 10.3200/GNTP.168.2.177-200.

Heinrich, C.J. (2014). Parent’s employment and children’s wellbeing. Spring, 24 (1), 121–146. Doi 10.1542/peds.2011-2663.

Hockenberry, M & Wilson, D. (2012). Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing (9th Ed.). St Louis: Elsevier Inc.

Joseph, M.V., & John, J. (2008). Impact of parenting styles on child development. Global Academic Society Journal: Social Science Insight, 1 (5), 16–25.

Kadi, F.A., Garna, H., & Fadlyana, E. (2008). Kesetaraan hasil skrining risiko penyim-pangan menurut cara kuesioner praskrining perkembangan (KPSP) dan denver II pada anak usia 12–14 bulan dengan berat lahir rendah. Sari Pediatri, 10 (1), 29–33.

Kamilah, S. (2015). Hubungan pola asuh dengan perkembangan anak usia 1–3 tahun di Puskesmas Jatinegara Jakarta Timur. Jurnal Ilmu Keperawatan Indonesia,5 (1), 33–39.

Kemenkes RI. (2010a). Pedoman kader seri kesehatan anak. Jakarta: Direktorat Bina Kesehatan Anak.

Kemenkes RI. (2010b). Data & informasi. Jakarta: Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2010.

Kemenpppa RI. (2013). Profil Perempuan Indonesia 2013. Diperoleh dari http://www. kemenpppa.go.id/lib/uploads/slider/c5be9-profile-perempuan-indonesia.pdf

Li, J., Johnson, S.E., Han, W.J., Andrews, S., Kendall, G., Strazdins, L., & Dockery, A.(2013). Parent’s non standard work schedules and child wellbeing. Journal of primary orevention, 1–49. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10935-013-0318-z.

Martin, A., Ryan, R.M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). The joint influence of mother and father parenting on child cognitive outcomes at age 5. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 423–439. Doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.07.001

Nanthamongkolchai, S., Ngaosusit, C., & Munsawaengsub, C. (2007). Influence of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years old. J Med Assoc Thai, 90 (5), 971–976.

Pelcovitz, D. (2013). The impact of working mothers on child development. Klal Perspectives Journal. Diperoleh dari https:// www.ou.org/life/parenting/impact-working-mothers-child-development-empirical-resear ch-david-pelcovitz/.

Rohmawati, W., & Rahmawati, N.A. (2012). Pengaruh tipe pola asuh ibu terhadap pertumbuhan balita di posyandu Srijaya Desa Pucang Miliran Kecamatan Tulung Kabupaten Klaten. Jurnal Involusi Kebidan-an, 2 (3), 1–13.

Rosli, N.A. (2009). Effect of parenting styles on children’s emotional and behavioral problem among different ethnicities of muslim children in the U.S. PhD Dissertation Marquette University. Diperoleh dari http:// epublications.marquette.edu/dissertations_mu/376/

Sitoresmi, S., Kusnanto., & Krisnana, I. (2014). Perkembangan motorik anak toddler pada ibu bekerja dan ibu tidak bekerja. Jurnal Pediomaternal, 3 (1), 66–72.

Sukoco, N.E., Pambudi, J., Herawati, M.H. (2015). Hubungan status gizi anak balita dengan orang tua bekerja. Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan, 18, 387-397.

Timpano, K.R., Keough, M.E., Mahaffrey, B., Schmidt, N.B., & Abramowitz, J. (2010). Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implication of authoritatian parenting. Journal of Cognitive Psycho-therapy: An International Quarterly, 24 (3), 151–164. Doi: 10.1891/0889-8391.24.3.15.

Tjaja, R.P. (2000). Wanita bekerja dan implikasi sosial. Diperoleh dari http://www.bappenas. go.id/files/6513/5228/3053/ratna__20091015151137__2386__0.pdf

UNICEF. (2013). The formative years: UNICEF’s work on measuring early childhood development. Diperoleh dari https://data.uni cef.org/resources/the-formative-years-unicef s-work-on-measuring-ecd/

Walker, J.M. (2008). Looking at teacher practices through the lens of parenting style. Journal of Experimental Education, 76, 218–240. Doi: 10.3200/JEXE.76.2.218-240

Wiwit, W., Jash, & Rachmadiana, M. (2003). Mengkomunikasikan moral kepada anak. Jakarta: PT Elex Media Komputindo.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia by http://jki.ui.ac.id is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
VISITOR COUNTER

StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter

~ View My Stats Detail ~