Stigmatisasi dan Perilaku Kekerasan pada Orang dengan Gangguan Jiwa (ODGJ) di Indonesia

Muhammad Arsyad Subu', Dave Holmes, Jayne Elliot

Abstract


Salah satu efek stigmatisasi gangguan jiwa adalah perilaku kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh penderita terhadap orang orang di sekitarnya termasuk keluarga, perawat dan masyarakat. Sebaliknya, penderitamengalamikekerasan dari keluarga, masyarakat dan profesional keperawatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan memahami dampak stigmatisasi dalam hubungannya dengan perilaku kekerasan terhadap penderita; serta untuk mengetahui perilaku kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh penderita terhadap orang lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan Constructivist Grounded Theory. Metode pengumpulan data termasuk wawancara semi-terstruktur, dokumen reviw, catatan lapangan, dan memo. Analisis data menggunakan metode Paillé. Perilaku kekerasan adalah efek stigmatisasi termasuk kekerasan diri sendiri dan kekerasan terhadap keluarga, masyarakat dan tenaga kesehatan.Kekerasan fisik juga dialami penderita dari orang lain. Dampak stigmatisasi dimanifestasikan dengan perilaku kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh penderita, keluarga, staf rumah sakit, masyarakat, dan aparat.Hasil temuan ini relevan untuk para perawat jiwa yang memberikan asuhan keperawatan terhadap pasien perilaku kekerasan.Penelitian lanjut diperlukan untuk melihat perspektif keluarga, masyarakat dan staf pemerintah  terkait stigma dengan perilaku kekerasan.

 

 Abstract

 

Stigmatization and Violent Behavior on Mental Illness Patient in Indonesia. An effect of stigmatization of mental illness is violent behavior conducted by patients toward other people around them including families, nurses and communities. Conversely, patients experienced violence conducted by families, communities and nursing professionals. This study aims to understand the effects of stigmatization on violent behavior towards sufferers; and to investigate violent behavior committed by sufferers against other people. This study used Constructivist Grounded Theory. Methods of data collection are semi-structured interviews, document review, field notes, and memos. Data analysis used Paillé. Violent behavior is the effect of stigmatization including self-harm and violence against families, communities and health professionals. Physical abuse is experienced by sufferers from others. The impact of stigmatization is manifested by violent behavior committed by patients, families, staff, community and authorities. Findings are relevant to psychiatric nurses who provide care to the patients with violent behavior. Further research is needed to see the perspective of families, communities and government to understand stigma in relation to violent behavior.

 

Keywords: Mental Illness, violent behavior, stigma, stigmatization


Keywords


gangguan jiwa; perilaku kekerasan; stigma; stigmatisasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7454/jki.v19i3.481

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