PELATIHAN ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN PEKA BUDAYA EFEKTIF MENINGKATKAN KOMPETENSI KULTURAL PERAWAT

Enie Novieastari, Jajang Gunawijaya, Agustin Indracahyani

Abstract

Seorang perawat dituntut untuk memiliki kompetensi kultural sehingga memiliki kepekaan terhadap kebutuhan budaya pasien. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran peningkatan kompetensi kultural perawat yang masih rendah melalui program Pelatihan Asuhan Keperawatan Peka Budaya pada Pasien dengan Gangguan Respirasi. Desain yang digunakan adalah quasi eksperimen dengan pre dan post test tanpa kelompok kontrol. Program pelatihan ini berlangsung selama 4 minggu melibatkan 93 orang perawat pelaksana dan manajer asuhan keperawatan di sebuah rumah sakit di Jakarta Timur yang dipilih secara purposif. Instrumen kompetensi kultural yang digunakan adalah instrumen yang dikembangkan oleh peneliti pada penelitian sebelumnya. Hasil pengukuran kompetensi kultural perawat sebelum dan setelah pelatihan menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna. Kompetensi kultural ditinjau dari aspek  pengetahuan budaya memiliki nilai p< 0,001 (α= 0,05), dari sikap budaya nilai p< 0,01 (α= 0,05),  dan dari aspek keterampilan budaya nilai p< 0,001 (α= 0,05). Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil adalah bahwa kegiatan Pelatihan Asuhan Keperawatan Peka Budaya efektif meningkatkan kompetensi kultural perawat dalam memberikan asuhan keperawatan. Rekomendasi untuk kegiatan selanjutnya adalah perlunya mensosialisasikan model Asuhan Keperawatan Peka Budaya yang digunakan dalam pelatihan ini kepada seluruh perawat agar dapat diterapkan kepada seluruh pasien dengan berbagai gangguan kesehatan.

 

Kata kunci: kompetensi budaya, pelatihan perawat, asuhan keperawatan, peka budaya

 

ABSTRACT

 

Culturally-sensitive nursing care trainings effectively improve nurses’ cultural competency. Nurses are required to have cultural competency in order to provide culturally sensitive nursing care for their patients. The purpose of this study was to improve nurse cultural competences through A Training Program of Culturally Sensitive Nursing Care for Patients with Respiratory Health Problems. The study utilized quasi-experiments design without control. The four-week training program was organized involving 93 nurses at Persahabatan Hospital Jakarta who were selected using purposive sampling. The nurse cultural competency instruments modified by the author from her previous work was used. The results of this study showed that after the training program, the nurse cultural competency increased significantly (p< 0.001 for cultural knowledge, p= 0.003 for cultural attitude, and p< 0.001 for cultural skills). It was found that the training program was effective to increase every aspect of nurse cultural competency. In conclusion, the nursing care training program was effective to increase nurse’s cultural competency. Further programs are needed to improve the program outreach for all nurses and to be applied to the patients with a variety of health problems.

 

Keywords: cultural competency, nurses training, culturally sensitive, nursing care

Keywords

kompetensi budaya; pelatihan perawat; asuhan keperawatan; peka budaya

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