Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
VIEWS: 349
Published: 2022-11-30

Beyond the Boundaries of Nursing Care: A Phenomenological Study

Universitas Karya Husada Semarang, Semarang 50276
Universitas Karya Husada Semarang, Semarang 50276
Universitas Karya Husada Semarang, Semarang 50276
coping management nurses’ management professional care psychological disorder


The COVID-19 pandemic created an emergency and challenging situation, especially for nurses, who have experienced feelings including fear and questions concerning their job responsibilities and professional ethics. They needed to maintain safety on the basis of their knowledge and skills. This study aimed to explore nurses’ experiences related to the pandemic. This research was conducted by using qualitative research with a descriptive phenomenological design. The participants were 15 nurses on duty in COVID-19 units at hospitals and who were delivering or had delivered direct care to patients with COVID-19. Data were collected from in-depth interview and analyzed with Colaizzi technique. The nurses experienced psychological disorders while they were performing their roles through the professional care models, and coping with the management of their workload during the pandemic. These circumstances were caused by the responsibility of nurses to give all forms of support and protection to patients. The study has shown that nurses faced some challenges regarding nursing workload to provide nursing care during the pandemic.



Melampaui Batas Asuhan Keperawatan: Sebuah Studi Fenomenologi. Pandemi COVID-19 menimbulkan situasi darurat yang menantang, terutama bagi perawat yang mengalami berbagai perasaan dalam menghadapi pandemi termasuk rasa takut, tanggung jawab pekerjaan, dan etika profesi. Perawat perlu menjaga keselamatan dengan pengetahuan dan keterampilan mereka. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengalaman perawat terkait pandemi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan desain deskriptif fenomenologi. Partisipan dalam penelitian ini adalah 15 perawat yang bertugas di unit COVID-19 di rumah sakit dan sedang atau pernah memberikan perawatan langsung kepada pasien COVID-19. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam dan dianalisis dengan teknik Colaizzi. Penelitian ini menemukan gangguan psikologis pada perawat dalam menjalankan perannya, manajemen koping terkait beban kerja keperawatan, dan model asuhan profesional selama masa pandemi. Kondisi ini disebabkan oleh tanggung jawab perawat dalam memberikan segala bentuk dukungan dan perlindungan terhadap pasien. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa perawat menghadapi berbagai tantangan dalam menjalankan beban kerja mereka untuk memberikan asuhan keperawatan selama masa pandemi.

Kata Kunci: gangguan psikologi, manajemen koping, mekanisme perawat, model asuhan keperawatan


  1. Adams, J.G., & Walls, R.M. (2020). Supporting the health care workforce during the COVID-19 global epidemic. Jama, 323 (15), 1439–1440. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3972.
  2. Alharbi, J., Jackson, D., & Usher, K. (2020). The potential for COVID-19 to contribute to compassion fatigue in critical care nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29 (15-16), 2762-2764. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15314.
  3. Cai, H., Tu, B., Ma, J., Chen, L., Fu, L., Jiang, Y., & Zhuang, Q. (2020). Psychological impact and coping strategies of frontline medical staff in Hunan between January and March 2020 during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) in Hubei, China. Medical Science Monitor, 26, e924171-1. doi: 10.12659/MSM.924171.
  4. Carbone, E.G., & Echols, E.T. (2017). Effects of optimism on recovery and mental health after a tornado outbreak. Psychology & Health, 32 (5), 530–548. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2017.1283039.
  5. Chen, X., Tian, J., Li, G., & Li, G. (2020). Initiation of a new infection control system for the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 20 (4), 397–398. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30110-9.
  6. Choi, B.-S., Kim, J.S., Lee, D.-W., Paik, J.-W., Lee, B.C., Lee, J.W., Lee, H.-S., & Lee, H.-Y. (2018). Factors associated with emotional exhaustion in South Korean nurses: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Investigation, 15 (7), 670–676. doi: 10.30773/pi.2017.12.31.
  7. Cowlan, E. (2020). COVID-19: A perspective of a frontline worker. Transfusion and Apheresis Science, 59 (3), 102783. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.102783.
  8. Feng, M.-C., Wu, H.-C., Lin, H.-T., Lei, L., Chao, C.-L., Lu, C.-M., & Yang, W.-P. (2020). Exploring the stress, psychological distress, and stress-relief strategies of Taiwan nursing staffs facing the global outbreak of COVID-19. Hu Li Za Zhi, 67 (3), 64–74. doi: 10.6224/JN.202006_67(3).09.
  9. Garcini, L.M., Rosenfeld, J., Kneese, G., Bondurant, R. G., & Kanzler, K.E. (2022). Dealing with distress from the COVID-19 pandemic: Mental health stressors and coping strategies in vulnerable latinx communities. Health and Social Care in the Community, 30 (1), 284–294. doi: 10.1111/hsc.13402.
  10. Gupta, S., & Sahoo, S. (2020). Pandemic and mental health of the front-line healthcare workers: a review and implications in the Indian context amidst COVID-19. General Psychiatry, 33 (5), e100284. doi: 10.1136/gpsych-2020-100284.
  11. Han, L., Wong, F.K.Y., She, D.L.M., Li, S.Y., Yang, Y.F., Jiang, M.Y., Ruan, Y., Su, Q., Ma, Y., & Chung, L.Y.F. (2020). Anxiety and depression of nurses in a North West Province in China during the period of novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52, 564–573. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12590.
  12. Huang, L., Lin, G., Tang, L., Yu, L., & Zhou, Z. (2020). Special attention to nurses’ protection during the COVID-19 epidemic. Critical Care, 24, 120. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-2841-7.
  13. Jackson, D., Bradbury-Jones, C., Baptiste, D., Gelling, L., Morin, K., Neville, S., & Smith, G.D. (2020). Life in the pandemic: Some reflections on nursing in the context of COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29 (13-14), 2041–2043. doi:10.1111/jocn.15257.
  14. Jennings, B.M., & Yeager, K.A. (2020). From fear to fortitude: Using the power within the nursing profession to fight COVID-19. Nursing Outlook, 68 (4), 391–392. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2020.04.008.
  15. Kang, L., Li, Y., Hu, S., Chen, M., Yang, C., Yang, B.X., Wang, Y., Hu, J., Lai, J., & Ma, X. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7 (3), e14. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X.
  16. Keesara, S., Jonas, A., & Schulman, K. (2020). Covid-19 and health care’s digital revolution. New England Journal of Medicine, 382 (23), e82. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2005835.
  17. Kim, J.S., & Choi, J.S. (2016). Factors influencing emergency nurses’ burnout during an outbreak of middle east respiratory syndrome corona-virus in Korea. Asian Nursing Research, 10 (4), 295–299. doi: 10.1016/j.anr.2016.10.002.
  18. Kim, Y. (2018). Nurses’ experiences of care for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus in South Korea. American Journal of Infection Control, 46 (7), 781–787. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.01.012.
  19. Maben, J., & Bridges, J. (2020). Covid-19: Supporting nurses’ psychological and mental health. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29 (15-16), 2642-2750. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15307.
  20. Mak, W.W.S., Law, R.W., Woo, J., Cheung, F.M., & Lee, D. (2009). Social support and psychological adjustment to SARS: The mediating role of self-care self-efficacy. Psychology & Health, 24 (2), 161–174. doi: 10.1080/08870440701447649.
  21. Mendrofa, F.A.M., Hani, U., & Nurhidayat, Y. (2021). Could coronavirus 2019-infected disease patients get cope with the treatment?: A qualitative study. International Journal of Public Health Science, 10 (4), 880–887. doi: 10.11591/IJPHS.V10I4.20912.
  22. Mishra, P., Bhadauria, U.S., Dasar, P.L., Kumar, S., Lalani, A., Sarkar, P., Chauhan, A., Godha, S., & Vyas, S. (2016). Knowledge, attitude and anxiety towards pandemic flu: A potential bio weapon among health professionals in Indore city. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, 70 (1), 41–45.
  23. Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., Qin, M., & Huang, H. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. Journal of Nursing Management, 28 (5), 1002–1009. doi: 10.1111/jonm.13014.
  24. Ornell, F., Halpern, S.C., Kessler, F.H.P., & Narvaez, M. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare professionals. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 36, e00063520. doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00063520.
  25. Piredda, M., Candela, M.L., Mastroianni, C., Marchetti, A., D’Angelo, D., Lusignani, M., De Marinis, M.G., & Matarese, M. (2020). “Beyond the boundaries of care dependence”: A phenomenological study of the experiences of palliative care nurses. Cancer Nursing, 43 (4), 331–337. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000701.
  26. Pujiyanto, T.I., & Hapsari, S. (2020). Performance enhancement of nurse with quality of nursing work life model. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24 (7), 7736–7743. doi: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I7/PR2700744.
  27. Pujiyanto, T.I., Mendrofa, F.A.M., & Hani, U. (2022). Burnout among nurses working in COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Public Health Science, 11 (1), 113–120. doi: 10.11591/ijphs.v11i1.21267.
  28. Rock, G. (2020). Theme: Information on the Covid-19 pandemic. Transfusion and Apheresis Science, 59 (3), 102791. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.102791.
  29. Sadang, J.M., Macaronsing, S.I. P., Alawi, N.M., Taib, N.M., & Pangandaman, H.K. (2021). Hypertension self-care management during covid-19 pandemic crisis in the meranao tribe: A phenomenological inquiry. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 24 (2), 74–81. doi: 10.7454/jki.v24i2.1308.
  30. Shanafelt, T., Ripp, J., & Trockel, M. (2020). Understanding and addressing sources of anxiety among health care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Jama, 323(21), 2133–2134. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.5893.
  31. Smith, M.W., Smith, P.W., Kratochvil, C.J., & Schwedhelm, S. (2017). The psychosocial challenges of caring for patients with Ebola virus disease. Health Security, 15 (1), 104–109. doi: 10.1089/hs.2016.0068.
  32. Sun, R., Blayney, D.W., & Hernandez-Boussard, T. (2021). Health management via telemedicine: Learning from the COVID-19 experience. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 28 (11), 2536–2540. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab145.
  33. Waugh, C.E. (2013). The regulatory power of positive emotions in stress a temporal-functional approach. In M. Kent, M.C. Davis, & J.W. Reich (Eds.), The resilience handbook: Approaches to stress and trauma (pp. 73–85). Routledge.
  34. Zhang, X., Jiang, Z., Yuan, X., Wang, Y., Huang, D., Hu, R., Zhou, J., & Chen, F. (2021). Nurses reports of actual work hours and preferred work hours per shift among frontline nurses during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic: A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances, 3, 100026. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnsa.2021.100026.

How to Cite

Pujiyanto, T. I., Hapsari, S., & Hani, U. (2022). Beyond the Boundaries of Nursing Care: A Phenomenological Study. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 25(3), 127–135.