KUALITAS HIDUP PASIEN SKIZOFRENIA DIPERSEPSIKAN MELALUI STIGMA DIRI

Ice Yulia Wardani, Fajar Apriliana Dewi


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7454/jki.v21i1.485


Abstract


Skizofrenia merupakan sekumpulan gejala atau sindrom yang dapat menyebabkan masalah kejiwaan yang sangat serius. Stigma diri muncul akibat efek negatif penilaian orang lain terhadap pasien Skizofrenia sehingga mengakibatkan penurunan kemampuan kerja, fungsi sosial, harga diri, dan harapan. Kualitas hidup pasien Skizofrenia erat kaitannya dengan disabilitas yang dialaminya berupa perubahan kognitif dan persepsi dalam menjalani kehidupan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kualitas hidup pasien skizofrenia melalui stigma diri. Desain penelitian ini adalah descriptive corelative dengan pendekatan cross sectional, sampel 92 responden yang dipilih menggunakan teknik consecutive sampling. Analisis uji statistik menggunakan correlation test. Hasil dari penelitian adalah ada hubungan antara stigma diri dengan kualitas hidup pasien Skizofrenia dengan korelasi negatif (r= -0,568, p= 0,00). Level stigma diri termasuk kedalam klasifikasi stigma tinggi dan klasifikasi kualitas hidup yang rendah. Penelitian ini merekomen-dasikan pelaksanaan intervensi keperawatan yang berorientasi pada pasien berupa pencegahan stigma negatif dan peningkatan kualitas hidup.

 
 

 Abstract

 

Quality of Life Schizophrenia Patients Treated Through Self Stigma. Schizophrenia is a syndrome that could induce seriously psychology problems. Self stigma can induce because of consequence of negative stereotype in patients with Schizophrenia with the result that diminished ability to work, social function, self-esteem and hope. Quality of life in patients with Schizophrenia related to disability because of impaired cognitive and perception in their life. This study was conducted to correlation between self stigmawith quality of life in patients Schizophrenia. Methodology use descriptive correlative with cross sectional study, used 92 patients with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia and used consecutive sampling. Statistical analysis test using correlation test. Result this study, there is significance correlation between self stigma and quality of life (p= 0.00 < 0.005) (r= -0.865). The level of self stigma of patients with schizophrenia was determined to be high, and the self stigma had a negative impact on the quality of life.  This study recommends the implementation of patient oriented nursing interventions in the form of prevention of negative stigma and improvement of quality of life

 

Keywords: internalized stigma, quality of life, Schizophrenia


Keywords


kualitas hidup; Skizofrenia; stigma diri

Full Text:

Ice_Layout.PDF

References


Adelufosi, A.O., Ogumwale, A., & Abayomi, O., Mosanya, J.T. (2013). Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of subjective quality of life among Nigerian outpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 209 (3), 320–325. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.12.0 27.

Andriyani, S. (2012). Hubungan karakteristik klien skizofrenia dengan tingkat kemampuan perawatan diri di Ruang Rawat Inap Wanita Rumah Sakit Marzuki Mahdi Bogor (Skripsi, tidak dipublikasikan). Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan Universitas Indonesia, Depok.

Da Silva, T.F.C., Mason, V., Abelha, L., Lovisi, G.M., & Cavalcanti, M.T. (2011). Quality of life assesment of patients with spectrum disorder from psychosocial care centers. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, 60 (2), 91–98. doi: 10.1590/S0047-2085220110002000 04

Mashiach-Eizenberg, M., Hasson-Ohayon, I., Yanos, P.T., Lysaker, P.H., & Roe, D. (2013). Internalized Stigma quality of life among persons with severe mental illness: The mediating roles of self esteem and hope. Psychiatric Research, 208 (1), 15–20. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.03.013.

Gomes, E., Bastos, T., Probst, M., Ribeiro, J.C., Silva, G., & Rui, C. (2014). Effect of a group physical activity program on physical fittness and quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7 (3), 155–162. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.mhpa.2014.07.002.

Gigantesco, A., & Giuliani, M. (2011). Quality of life in mental health services with a focus on psychiatric rehabilitation practice. Ann 1st Super Sanita. 47 (4), 363–372. doi: 10.4415/ ANN_11_04_07.

Hamilton, V. (2012). An exploration of implicit associations regarding mental illness, self reported internalized stigma and their links to help seeking symptom thresholds amongst individuals experiencing depressive symptoms (Master’s Thesis). Doctorate in Clinical Psychology, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Retrieved from https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/42449/1/2012HamiltonVClinPsyD.pdf.

Hayhurst, K.P., Drake, R.J., Massie, J.A., Dunn G., Barnes, T.R.E., Jones, P.B., & Lewis, S.W. (2014). Improved quality of life over one year is associated with improved adherence in patients with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 29 (3), 191–196. http:dx.doi.100. 1016/j.eurpsy.2013.03.002

Hill, K., & Startup, M. (2012). The relationship between internalized stigma, negative symp-toms and social functioning in schizophrenia: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Psychiatry Research, 206 (2–3), 151–157. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.056.

Kopelowicz, A., Liberman, R.P., & Charles, J.W. (2003). Psychiatric rehabilitation for schizophrenia. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 3 (2), 238–298.

Lysaker, P.H., Davis, L.W., Warman, D.M., Strasburger, A., & Beattie, N. (2007). Stigma, social function, and symptoms in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective disorder: Associations across 6 months. Psychiatry Research, 149 (1–3), 89–95. doi: 10.1016/ j.psychres.2006.03.007.

Margariti, M., Plumpidis, D., Economou, M., Christodoulou, G.N., & Papadimitriou, G.N. (2015). Quality of life in schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Associations with insight and psychopathology. Psychiatry Research. http:dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.016.

Montemagni, C., Castagna, F., Crivelli, B., De Marzi, G., Frieri, T., Macrì, A., & Rocca, P. (2014). Relative contributions of negative symptoms, insight, and coping strategies to quality of life in stable schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 220 (1–2), 102–111. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.07.019.

Park, S.G, Bennett, M.E., Couture, S.M., & Blanchard, J.J. (2013). Internalized stigma in schizophrenia: Relations with dysfunctional attitudes, symptoms and quality of life. Psychiatry Res, 205 (1–2), 43–47. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.08.040.

Dewi, R., & Machira, C.R. (2009). Riwayat Gangguan Jiwa pada Keluarga dengan Kekambuhan Pasien Skizofrenia di RSUP dr Sarjito Yogyakarta. Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat, 25 (4), 176–179. https://doi.org/ 10.22146/bkm.3551.

Sharaf, A.Y., Ossman, L.H., & Lachine, O.A. (2012). A cross-sectional study of the relationships between illness insight, inter-nalized stigma, and suicide risk in individuals with Schizophrenia. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49 (12), 1512–1520. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.08.006

Shives, L.R. (2012). Basic concepts of psychiatric-mental health nursing (8th Ed.). Florida: Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sigaudo, M., Crivelli, B., Castagna, F., Giugiario, M., Mingrone, C., Montemagni, C., Rocca, G., & Rocca, P. (2014). Quality of life in stable schizophrenia: The relative contri-butions of disorganization and cognitive dysfunction. Schizophrenia Research, 153 (1–3), 196–203. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2014. 01.013.

Sibitz, I., Amering, M., Unger, A., Seyringer M.E., Bachmann, A., Schrank. B., Benesch, T., Schulze, B., & Woppmann. A. (2011). The impact of social network, stigma and empowerment on the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 26, 28–33. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy. 2010.08.010.

Staring, A.B.P, Van der Gaag, M., Van den Berge, M., Duivenvoorden, H.J, & Mulder, C.L. (2009). Stigma moderates the associations of insight with depressed mood, low self-esteem, and low quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 115 (2–3), 363–369. doi: 10.1016/j.schres. 2009.06.015

Stuart, G.W. (2013). Principles and Practice Psychiatric Nursing (10th Ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby.

Townsend, M.J. (2011). Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care in evidence based practice (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Üçok, A., Karadayi, G., Emiroğlu, B., & Sartorius, N. (2013). Anticipated discrimination is related to symptom severity, functionality and quality of life schizofrenia. Psychiatry Research, 209 (3), 333–339. doi: 10.1016/ j.psychres.2013.02.022.

Videbeck, S.L. (2011). Psychiatric mental health nursing (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Walkins.

Viertiö, S. (2011). Functional limitations and quality of life in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorder. Finland: National Institute for Health and Welfare.

World Health Organization. (2011). Mental heatlh atlas. Italy: WHO Press.

Yilmaz, E., & Okanli, A. (2015). The effect of internalized stigma on adherence to treatment in patients with schizofrenia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 29 (5), 297–301. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2015.05.006.

Lv, Y., Wolf, A., & Wang, X. (2013). Experience stigma and self stigma in Chinese patients with Schizophrenia. General Hospital Psychiatry, 35 (1), 83–88. doi: 10.1016/ j.genhosppsych.2012.07.007.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia by http://jki.ui.ac.id is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia, Prof. Bahder Djohan Street, 1st Floor, A Building Health Sciences Cluster Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia